Technology conferences are always sausage-fests. Attendees are overwhelmingly male and queues often form at peak times. These queues are called “qurinals”.
In human burials, a crematory is a machine for cremation. A crematorium is building that contains a cremator.
A natatory is a network device that burns up customers data into ash through the process of Network Address Translation. A “natatorium” is a building where customer data is burnt in a fire. Also known as a service provider backbone.
IP Network Address Translation (NAT) was developed in the late 1990’s as a way to maximise utilisation of IPv4 address space and simply the deployment of Internet before there was much Internet to be had.
At a technology level, NAT is a serious technical buttache. You must track the state of every unique TCP session in terms of source IP, source TCP port, destination IP, destination TCP port. Load is a function of both the rate of TCP session initiation AND the concurrent sessions. This is worst possible outcome since a NAT gateways must track vast amount of state at very low latencies and without suitable knowledge of the applications which can dynamically and legally change the TCP session state at any time.
And a major security problem as well though low resolution of identifiable sources.
In 2015, service providers have implemented ever bigger devices that implement NAT and device failures, overflows, address exhausation, software bugs cause regular outages.
The correct definition for a natatorium is a an indoor swimming pool or complex. Which is much more boring.
The key to high availability design is to consider the failure of each element in a system and then to analyse the interaction of elements in a system looking for integrated failures. The size of the failure domain is known as the “blast radius” (in relation to when “something blows up”).
For example: A firewall failure in a typical corporate DMZ design will causes a total loss of Internet services.
The concept of “blast radius” is used to describe this effect. When something blows up, how far does the damage spread throughout the infrastructure or system ?
In networking, the term is commonly used in relation to Layer 2 Networking or VLANs. The Ethernet protocol is highly dependent on broadcasts, unicast and multicast (BUM) frames for name resolution. However these frames are readily susceptible to infinite looping in Ethernet switches. At the same time, loops are required for path resilience.
It is only a matter of time until a looping event occurs in any Ethernet network so the key design factor is to limit the impact. The bigger the failure domain, the more impact to the campus network or data centre.
A small explosive can have a very large blast radius.
Typical motivation for consolidation is to
- reduce competition,
- increases scale/volume to reduce production costs,
- increase market shares
- increases profits
Examples are when a large company buys its competitors to take them out of the market. Consolidation only happens in mature markets where innovation has stalled.
Compare this with convergence which I perceive as technology-centric or production and result of progress in software development and hardware manufacture.
- switching and routing functions converge in to a single device
- Ethernet as the only Layer 2 networking protocol.
- IPv4/IPv6 as the only Layer 3 networking protocol
- convergence on HTTPS is the dominant application protocol
- convergence of hypervisors into orchestration systems such as OpenStack, SCVVM, or verbalise
- SANs replaced by distributed storage software on commoditity hardware.
and so on.
A homoglyph is a text characters with shapes that identical or similar to each other.
Common examples are zero/O and one/l .
More complex Homoglyphs are derived from characters used in other languages that are a part of Unicode. In the following, this website converts english text “EtherealMind” into characters that looks similar but use completely different HTML characters.
Homoglyphs are often used in spam to bypass language recognition and pattern matching systems.